Thursday, April 30, 2009

CANCER

Cancer (medicine) is not just a disease, but each one of more than 100 diseases characterized by excessive, includes a large group of diseases, all of which are characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, which penetrate and destroy other tissues. Cancer is not a contagious disease, but it is one of the cells of the fight against the body itself. In cancers, normal cells are transformed into malignant cells' "that grow, reproduce and spread in an abnormal, uncontrolled fashion. If the spread is not controlled, cancer can lead to death.

Despite the fact that there are several hundred different types of cancer, producing very different symptoms, the American Cancer Society (ACS) has the following symptoms as possible warning signs of cancer:
(1) changes in the size, color or shape of a wart or a mole;
(2) a wound that does not heal;
(3) persistent coughing, hoarseness, sore throat;
(4) a lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere;
(5) unusual bleeding or discharge;
(6) chronic indigestion or difficulty in swallowing;
(7) any change in bowel or bladder habits.

Cancer usually occurs gradually over many years, the results of a complex mix of environmental, nutritional, behavioural and hereditary factors. In addition, the researcher also noted that there are four hypotheses about the causes of cancer are
(1) a relationship of stress, tension and negative emotions such as hopelessness, self-effacement, and fear;
(2) an environmental theory, which relate to the relationship between cancer, chemicals, poison, and the like;
(3) a virus theory which states that a virus takes over the functioning of a normal cell and leads to changes in the surrounding cells, and (4) a genetic theory that holds that there oncogenes in organisms which, if activated, such as by environmental events, may lead to specific forms of cancer.

There are three possible causes of spontaneous regression in cancer patients also good health, the influence of hormones, and the action of immune organs. There is no evidence of a relationship between stress and the disruption of the immune system that may precede cancer. But because stress does not affect the immune system, the immune system may in turn affect the growth of tumors. This event caused by the stressful events influence existing tumors through central and peripheral neurotransmitter activity and the secretion of hormones.

In the course of the stress response, the hormone cortisol is released and consumed fat and protein to ensure that the body has sufficient energy for the fight against threats. Immuno-suppression happens, because if cortisol move proteins in energy, there is no longer enough protein for the manufacture of new cells. White blood cells drop dramatically during chronic stress, weakening of the immune system. In this way, stressful life events may affect other disorders. So, stressors may affect the development of psychiatric disorders, which in turn may affect the immune system, perhaps promoting the development of cancer.

The laboratory investigation has confirmed that experimentally induced tumors in animals can be affected by specific environmental and behavioural variables. It is now possible to some extent to predict how an already existing tumor will respond to stress. Stressors may affect viral tumors grow faster. The cancer patients who often anger, fear, hopelessness, depression and feelings of powerlessness, sorrow, guilt and self-blame, the cancer. They may suffer from a feeling of loss of welfare and strength, and reduced self-efficacy and control and face treatments.

Hans Eysenck (1991) has concluded that the combination or interaction of cigarette smoking and stressors, it is especially important in the development of cancer. Psychological effects of cancer can be alleviated by the use of Stress Management Methods. Patients who are trained in techniques for relaxation and pictures have significantly decreased the tension, anger, depression and self-reported nausea, and physiological arousal. Leisure and images are often effective techniques in decreasing stress reactions, psychological effects, and psychological reactions in patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation treatment of cancer.

The treatment of cancer in many different forms, and it is always tailored to the individual patient. The decision on what type of treatment is best suited depends on the nature and location of cancer, the extent to which it has already spread across the patient's age, gender, general health status and treatment of personal preferences. Forms of medical treatment of cancer through includes surgery, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These treatments are aimed at reducing or eradicating the disease. In addition, there are nonmedical treatments are available, the person taking attitude and imagery. A positive attitude towards life is thought by some to be correlated with positive results of the treatment of cancer

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