Thursday, April 30, 2009

Lung Cancer - Staging

Staging is the extent of the spread of cancer definition method. Staging is very important, it is because of your recovery and treatment may depend on the profile of your cancer staging. For example, a period of cancer may be the best treatment, while the other would be preferable in the treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Small-cell and non-small cell lung cancer staging system is not the same.

Patients with lung cancer treatment and prognosis (survival may Overview) depends largely on the stage of cancer and cell types. CT, MRI, scans, bone marrow biopsy, mediastinal microscope and hematology checks can be used for cancer staging.

Be sure to let your doctor you can understand the way in which you explain your view, to decide which treatment best suited to your personal medical situation.

Non-small cell lung cancer staging:
Most often used to describe non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the growth and spread of the TNM staging system, also called the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). In the TNM staging, combined with the tumor, nearby lymph nodes and distant organs transfer of information, which used to refer to specific phases of the TNM grouping. Packet staging and the use of digital 0 Roman numerals I to IV to describe.

T representative tumor (in the lungs, as well as the size and extent of the spread of approaching organ), the representative lymph node spread of N, M said metastasis (spread to distant organs).

Non-small cell lung cancer staging T: T classification according to the size of lung cancer in the lungs and the proliferation of location, spread to the extent of approaching organizations.

- Cancer confined to the airway lining cells pathway. Not spread to the other lung tissue, lung cancer is often called carcinoma in situ.

- Tumors less than 3 cm (slightly less than 11 / 4 inches), did not spread to visceral pleural (lung wrapped with the membrane), and did not affect the main bronchus.

- Cancer one or more of the following characteristics:

  • greater than 3 cm

  • main bronchial involvement, but from the carina (trachea into place around the main bronchus) more than 2 cm (about 3 / 4 inches).

  • Already spread to the visceral pleura

  • Cancer partial obstruction of the airway, but did not cause lung or in proper pneumonia

- Cancer one or more of the following characteristics:

  • Spread to the chest wall, diaphragm (to be separate from the chest and abdominal respiratory muscle), mediastinal pleura (the gap between the lungs wrapped with the membrane), or layer of pericardial (heart wrapped membrane).

  • Side of the main bronchial involvement from the carina (trachea into place around the main bronchus) less than 2 cm (about 3 / 4 inches) but do not include the carina.

  • Into the airway has been long enough to cause lung or all in proper pneumonia.

- Cancer one or more of the following characteristics:

  • Spread to mediastinal (sternum after the gap in front of the heart), heart, trachea, esophagus (connecting hose pipe and the stomach), spine, or carina (trachea into place around the main bronchus).

  • With a lobe, there are two or more independent of tumor nodules

  • With malignant pleural effusion (fluid around the lung, cancer cells contain).

Non-small cell lung cancer classification N
N staging of cancer depends on the violation of the lymph nodes near.
N0: cancer has not spread to lymph nodes
N1: the proliferation of lymph node cancer confined to the lungs, hilar lymph nodes (located in bronchial pulmonary enter the local environs). Limited to the lymph node metastasis from lung ipsilateral.
N2: carina cancer has spread to lymph nodes (around tracheal bronchus into position around), or mediastinal lymph node (sternum after heart before the gap). Limited to the lymph nodes involved with ipsilateral lung.
N3: Cancer has spread to the ipsilateral or contralateral supraclavicular lymph node, and (or) from spreading to the contralateral lung hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes.

Table 1: Non-small cell lung cancer group stages

Non-small cell lung cancer staging M
M phases depends on whether the cancer organization or transferred to distant organs.
M0: no distant proliferation.
M1: cancer has spread to one or more distant sites. Other sites include distant lobe, exceeding by more than N staging, and the lymph nodes or other organs, such as the liver, bone or brain.
Non-small cell lung cancer staging groups: Once the T, N and M phases clear, and the combination of these messages (phased organization) would be a clear integrated phases 0, I, II, III or IV period (see table 1). Staging relatively low patient survival prospects good.

Stage small cell lung cancer
Although small cell lung cancer can be as non-small cell lung cancer the same stage, but doctors found that the vast majority of physicians two more simple system in the treatment of a better option. The system will be divided into small-cell lung cancer, "the deadline" and "extensive" period (also called the proliferation of period).

Deadline that the cancer is limited to the lung and lymph nodes only side in the same side of the chest.

If the cancer spread to the other side of the lung, chest or contralateral lymph nodes or distant organs, or is enveloping the pulmonary malignant pleural effusion, called extensive period.

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